Political ecologist Eszter Kovacs and photo-journalist Toby Smith report on today’s local government elections in Dhulikhel, Nepal.
Nepal has not held local government elections for twenty years, and local democracy is claimed to be long overdue. Yet throughout this period contested and under-reported elections have been taking place within communities for the direct control and management of natural resources – particularly of water.
In this same time, water’s importance as a resource across the Himalayas has grown. Local communities have had to overcome greater scarcity that has arisen through a combination of pressures from urbanisation, heightened demand and variable resource availability from a changing climate. The ability to control and improve people’s lives through better water supply has meant that water has also become a potent political resource.
Past water elections yielded many of the candidates that stood for Nepal’s first formal government elections since 1997. Candidates are in large number tried and tested leaders, well known to their voters as they cut their political teeth in drinking water management.
Ashok Byanju stood today as the likely Mayor-incumbent for Dhulikhel. Byanju heads the Steering Committee for the largest investment into Dhulikhel’s water supply system through the Kavre Valley Integrated Drinking Water Supply Project. His history with water is extensive, as Byanju was also a co-founder of the German-funded and nationally-lauded Dhulikhel Drinking Water Supply Project from the late 1980s. The promise and the exposure gained from these projects has led to Byanju becoming a well-recognised face, giving him a significant advantage over his six other mayoral hopefuls.
The ability to improve the water lots of Dhulikhel’s population, which is rapidly increasing as the town experiences unprecedented urbanisation rates, has been evaluated through local elections for drinking water user committee members every three years since 1990. If leaders are unable to provide, they are booted out.
The former committee President, Raj Kumar Shrestha Takhachhe, lost the campaign for his re-election in late 2016 by 69 votes. During the last eight months of his tenure, new households were prevented from obtaining a water connection over fears of water supply limits. Water supply has been unable to adequately keep up with the expansion of Dhulikhel’s borders. In consequence, the town’s supply system reinforces a core-periphery hierarchy, wherein peripheral, newer wards are not served.
The new alternate candidate for President of the drinking water committee, Rameshwor Shrestha Ghinanju, campaigned to provide water to everybody. Ward 7, a historically deprived area locally well-known for its political protests and water blockades, ensured in particular that Rameshwor would get a chance to make true his promise through voting en masse for the new candidate. And indeed: since becoming President, Rameshwor has made steady progress, initiating the drilling of a series of deep borewells during this past month.
These dynamics of electoral enthusiasm (with participation at around 75%) run counter to the general assumption that there has been place-based political stagnation and a lack of initiative for addressing local issues through democratic processes in modern Nepal.
Indeed, many water supply challenges have been met: over the years Dhulikhel has realised better coverage, water quality and supply hours. Current campaign promises include beautification projects that target several fetid, algal-bloom communal pools throughout the town, which gradually came into being as new construction blocked water seepage routes and prevented recharge.
At a larger scale and longer term, the impacts of climate change and a greater number of high-consumption stakeholders (including higher household water demands) threaten Dhulikhel’s development prospects. These issues are essentially universal across the Himalayas, as development pressures and populations meet finite and decreasing water availability.
“The tail of a dog never straightens even if you keep it in a tube for twelve years” – Nepali Proverb
Through history water has played a powerful role in determining where and how life is possible. The ability to control water supply and access in Dhulikhel in the early 1980s indelibly marked the town and set it on its current course. Dhulikhel’s last “official” mayor from two decades ago, Bel Prasad Shrestha, brought toilets indoors and donor money to “fix” and augment Dhulikhel’s water system.
Bel Prasad secured adequate water supplies such that Kathmandu University and later Dhulikhel’s hospital could be established. Bel Prasad identified the necessity and power of water, and the development it could bring. In recognition of the improvements his projects brought to everyday lives in Dhulikhel, Bel Prasad was asked to run for mayor in 1992, and was twice re-elected.
This recent history of Dhulikhel’s water governance demonstrates how successful management hinges on the vision and commitment of particular individuals working within accountable, representative community groups. The effects of local government elections and the introduction of national-level political priorities on these already-existing community efforts are as yet unknown. Today, Dhulikhel’s young and old grasped the opportunity to have their voices and choices heard on a new stage, through known local leaders.
Department of Geography, University of Cambridge
Collaboration with the Cambridge Coastal Research Unit
Exhibition Open to the Public
12th March 11am – 5pm
Filmed and Produced by Toby Smith
The Yorkshire Coast has long been synonymous and exemplary of coastal erosion and processes in Britain. The soft and fragile geology, stretching south from Bridlington to Spurn Head, contrasts sharply with the resilience of cliffs and formations at Flamborough Head. I was first introduced to this landscape during a GCSE Geography Field Trip and it has long been a personal metaphor for the fragility and temporary nature of landscape within a planet dominated by open-water.
Formation of the current Holderness landforms began during the last ice age some 50,000 years ago. As the advancing glaciers moved southwards they carried beneath them a vast quantity of material eroded from landmasses further north. Later as the ice sheets retreated this material was deposited burying the ancient coastline below a layer of boulder clay some 20 to 50 metres thick. By the end of the ice age, about 10,000 years ago, the coastline that we recognise today had been formed although it was some 15 to 20km east of its current position.
Almost immediately after this ancient deposition, the North Sea began to rapidly erode this clay coastline. Accelerated by the sinking of land-levels and the rising of sea-levels recent historic data suggests the coastline is lost at a rate of over 2m per year. The modern phenomenon of climate change, coupled with winter storm surges can see dramatic single events where land and property fall into the sea at an alarming rate. A favourite topic of national media especially when considering the changing policy and reduction in ‘investment’ in hard sea-defences.
Despite the claims of the Daily Mail, the loss of cliff-top settlements is not unique to recent history. Over 30 known villages have been lost on this coast since the Roman Era. Most eloquently discussed by Thomas Sheppard (F.G.S.) in his 1912 book ‘The Lost Towns of the Yorkshire Coast’.
This book and in particular the map insert, inspired me to produce a short-form video project to illustrate more poignantly the fragile nature of our coastline. I wanted to illustrate its transience and fragility not just over geological time-scales but within our more recent history.
I obtained a peer-reviewed map of the Yorkshire Coast that accurately plots the positions of 28 villages that are now situated between 200 and 1200m into the North Sea. By overlaying this map onto Google Earth it was possible to reveal the exact latitude and longitude of the villages. These coordinates were then used to charter a small fishing boat to their exact position at sea.
Filming West towards the coast, I selected a photographic lens equal in perspective to human vision and field of view. As an artist working on environmental issues I strive to make visual the often intangible reality of climate change. I will not claim here that the 13 villages depicted in this ‘work-in-progress’ piece are lost due to human activity. However, the expanse of forbidding water between their exact position and the distant coast-line I hope can inspire an understanding of how our activities can influence and accelerate damaging natural processes.
This year I was very pleased to be invited to contribute to 24 Photography. In 2004 they signalled the start of a photographic project that saw 24 postgraduate photography students, from Central Saint Martins College of Art and Design, document the first day of the New Year.
My frame was shot at 1400 on New Year’s Day, on Lee Beach in Devon.
Taken on Lee Beach in Devon, this area of outstanding natural beauty is famous for its unique, exposed geology and abundance of fossils. Tides and powerful wave action erode and shape the jagged coastline. At low water the tidal pools drain through the sediments chipped from the cliffs depositing shale into the cracks and crevices.
In 2015 Canon Europe partnered with my agency, Reportage by Getty Images, to produced a series of videos entitled “Learn from the Professionals” . It was a pleasure to work on the creative, the technical script and location planning . Although we covered everything from Bokeh to Composition a particular highlight was 5 days in Wales with 3 spent climbing and camping on the summit of Mount Snowdon. I was filmed shooting an 8K Time Lapse on the new 5DSR and for 6 of the 72 hours the mountain put on a breath-taking show of light and colour.
Next up was a single day shoot, explaining exposure, in the secluded and mysterious Fairy’s Glen adjacent to the town of Betws-Y-Coed.
We concluded with a long evening back in London giving tips on Night Photography. I have to credit and thank the crew; not only behind the camera and boom mic but also behind the scenes at Getty HQ.
Nike have partnered with R/GA to help promote a campaign called “GETOUTHERE” with a very special nocturnal Nike Run Club Event on October 25th. At 1am, exactly as the clocks went back for winter, over 100 runners ran a 10km loop around the Thames armed with LED Xylobands.
This shot from the roof of the Tate Modern took plenty of planning, a technical test and location recce the week before. We had a single chance to capture the runners on the evening as they passed through the frame. The final image, assembled from 50 shots by The Forge, is a composite from 2 cameras running different exposure patterns and a third that was cropped tight to the bridge for extra detail in the LEDS.